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In April 1905 Einstein submitted his doctoral thesis "A NEW DETERMINATION of Molecular Dimensions" to the university in Zurich which was accepted in July. During this same year he published five pioneering papers - Annus Mirabalis - in the scientific magazine "Annalen der Physik" which revolutionized physics around the turn of the century.

Three of the papers will be briefly mentioned here - In the first article "On A Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light" Einstein proposed that electromagnetic radiation must consist of quantums or photons. Even though this theory is capable of explaining - among other things - the photoelectric effect it was at first rejected by physicists, namely by the pioneer of modern physics, Max Planck, later, however, confirmed
by him and adopted.

Perspective on quantum mechanical tunneling

This work became the foundation of a quantum theory and for this in particular Einstein received the Nobel Prize for the year 1921.

The paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" new interpretation delineates the principles of special relativity which deals with questions of objects as part of different coordination systems moving with constant speed relative to each other. It resulted in a of the conception of space and time and relies on the constancy of the speed of light and the principle of relativity which postulates that it is impossible to determine motions in an absolute way.

Shortly thereafter the paper "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend upon its Energy Content?" was published. It contains the famous equation E = m · c2 stating the equivalence of mass and energy. Through these publications Einstein attracted the attention of the scientific community. At the end of 1906 he published the paper "Planck's Theory of Radiation and the Theory of Specific Heat" which can be regarded as being the first publication on the quantum theory of the solid state.


 

"A human being is part of the whole called by us universe, a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings as something separated from the rest, a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty."

Albert Einstein

  

Einstein died in 1955. By then we had learnt how to combine quantum theory with the special theory of relativity. We had also understood that the myriad phenomena in nature are governed by just four forces - electromagnetism - gravity - the strong nuclear force - which holds atomic nuclei together - and the weak nuclear force - responsible for radioactive decay.


In quantum field theory, the probability of an event is computed by summing the probability amplitude (a complex number) for all possible ways in which the event can occur, as in the Feynman diagram shown here above in the title picture; the probability equals the square of the modulus of the total amplitude.


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Michael : catalyst-producer

about 1 month later
Michael said


Michael : catalyst-producer

3 months later
Michael said


In a polar region there is a continual deposition of ice, which is not symmetrically distributed about the pole. The earth's rotation acts on these unsymmetrically deposited masses [of ice], and produces centrifugal momentum that is transmitted to the rigid crust of the earth. The constantly increasing centrifugal momentum produced in this way will, when it has reached a certain point, produce a movement of the earth's crust over the rest of the earth's body, and this will displace the polar regions toward the equator. (Albert Einstein)


Michael : catalyst-producer

over 2 years later
Michael said


Everything is energy.

Einstein definitively established this with his famous theorem E=MC2, which proved the interchangeability of matter and energy. Concerning matter, Einstein once remarked, “we have been all wrong. What we have called matter is energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to be perceptible to the senses. There is no matter.” Arguably, this truth that has now been validated by the quantum sciences was known to the ancient Hindus when they employed the term maya, meaning the illusion often mistaken for reality. Energy (including “matter”) is simply consciousness, and vice versa.

Sol Luckman - Embodying Light




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Comment by Michael Grove on June 17, 2012 at 10:44

A NEW type of thinking is essential if mankind

is to survive and move to higher levels


Albert Einstein

 

Physicist & mathemetician, Einstein IS probably THE most renowned scientist of the 20th Century and one of the greatest thinkers of all time. The dramatic rethinking that Relativity Theory impelled in our understanding of the physical world - and its continuing influence on intellectual theorizing in many aspects of science - was no less INTEGRAL ART than the sheer breadth of talent that Leonardo da Vinci displayed.

What may need to be emphasised here is the vital part played by visual-spatial thinking in his formulation of theories and his radical solutions to problems.

As a child, however, Einstein was far from being regarded as specially gifted and reports of his

early life and education give several strong indications of dyslexia. Einstein's memory for words was poor and throughout his life he frequently misspelled names of places and people. He also continued to make errors of simple calculation, while being able “to handle deftly the most difficult tensor calculus” as Hoffmann stated. Obviously this did not endear him to his teachers in youth - yet as Thomas West has said - in time Einstein became teacher to all his professors, making the lectures he did not attend outdated and the books he did not study obsolete.

 

Comment by Robert Searle on June 19, 2012 at 11:15

 

A key tool which could be vital towards the development of higher thinking can be found in my following link  http://www.p2pfoundation.net/Universal_Debating_Project

 

 

 

Comment by Michael Grove on September 15, 2013 at 23:08

Einstein’s theory of relativity was based on two principles

These include the principle of relativity,  which states that the laws of physics don’t change, even when objects move at constant speeds relative to each other. It also looked at the principle of the speed of light. Einstein observed that the speed of light is the same for everyone, regardless of how their movement related to the light source. Einstein's theory explains that if two objects are moving through space and want to compare what they can see, the only thing that matters and helps determine this comparison is how fast the two objects are moving relative to each other. 

The special theory specifically includes movement in a straight or uniform line at a constant speed. If an object starts travelling faster, curves, or veers off course, the special relatively no longer applies. 

Comment by Michael Grove on November 7, 2013 at 21:20
Comment by Michael Grove on August 4, 2016 at 9:08

Unifying space and time


Einstein’s theory of special relativity created a fundamental link between space and time. The universe can be viewed as having three space dimensions — up/down, left/right, forward/backward — and one time dimension. This 4-dimensional space is referred to as the space-time continuum. My own understanding of the concept of this space-time continuum was first, established in my left-handed dyslexic mind, during the TIME I was being taught Physics GCE "A" Level, by Mr. Fage at Borehamwood Grammar School.
 I shall forever remember him as the tutor who drove a Daimler Dart SP250 convertible, in the context of "darting through the cosmos, 'fuller' SPeed ahead".


Most opportunistically, however, I have recently watched THE most excellent explanation of the 
space-time continuum during one of Stephen Hawking's GENIUS Discovery Science episodes, entitled Can We Travel in Time? • This was of particular relevance to me because the LAYERS and LEVELS exemplar demonstration of how spacetime, inextricably combined SPACE and TIME [in4D]™  exactly correlated with my 5th dimensional understanding of the fourth dimension, which homed and refined my innate dyslexic ability to manipulate 3 dimensional space in time, within my head, during my training as a pilot and air traffic controller.

To explain further, the 3 dimensional path travelled from A-B in New York, by the three people in the picture to the right, indicated by the stream of white light, in the transparent box beneath
correlated exactly with the way that I always saw the "future" take-off path of an aircraft from Gatwick, flying to Jersey for example, in the context of potential 'conflicts' with the paths of other aircraft, all of which I used to manipulate in my head, in relation to the moment by moment information, which was being fed to my brain by, at first primary radar and hand-written words & numbers 'information-strips' and subsequently secondary radar, supported by increasingly sophisticated data communication systems.

N.B. The flight path of that associated Gatwick Take-off Flight Path, of course, took considerably less TIME to traverse the FLIGHT LEVEL LAYERS of its path before attaining its allotted CRUISING FLIGHT LEVEL • than the 50 minutes taken, by the three people in the movie, to walk from TIME SQUARE to the 16th Floor of the building on the corner of 48th and 11th.

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