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 JOURNEY of LIFE has encompassed a three score years and ten, period of

 TIME, when the spiritual and scientific understanding of the passengers

 of Spaceship Earth, has been completely turned on its head, in preparation

 for the collective mindset SWITCH from now to the NOW, which is about

 coming to terms with the fact that every moment must be considered as the


 As a child, the nuns at St. Johns Primary School taught me to master my

 left≡handed italic handwriting, in preparation for our family's move to

 Borehamwood, where I attended Saffron Green Primary, prior to passing

 my 11+ examination to gain entrance to the Grammar School. I remember

 well, during my time at Saffron Green, getting to school early so that I

 could draw elevations of famous buildings, on the blackboard of my

 classroom before the other children and the teacher arrived. I also have

 vivid memories of spending ages on etching parallel stoke lines away from

 the coastlines of the countries of the world, which we were ask to draw,

 during lessons and homework exercises, in projects about Britain and the

 Romans, as well the countries of the Commonwealth; and thinking about

 how the outline of the East Coast of South America very 'neatly fitted' with

 that of the West Coast of the African Continent, well before science had

 accepted the concept of plate tectonics; and even during my geography

 and geology lessons at Grammar School, my teacher was insistent that

 the very concept was ridiculous. Since then, it has been shown that the

 motion of the continents is linked to seafloor spreading, and that the

concept of continental drift resulted in an understanding of the fact that

 Pangea ruled the earth for a hundred million years until it eventually

 started cracking apart, as a result of a tectonic fault between two plates,

 which is now referred to as the mid-Atlantic rift; and consequently the

 seas flowed in, to eventually form the Atlantic OceanI also studied

 History at Grammar School, and have been convinced ever since that

 History and Geography should be taught as the same subject, with a

 little of Carl Jung dropped in occasionally for good measure.

 The human race almost certainly originated in East Africa, where our

 australopithecine ancestors are known to have lived at least 6 million

 years ago. The genus Homo made its first appearance around 2 million

 years ago and not long afterwards, groups of hominids started to fan out

 from their African homeland in search of new food sources. These early

 migrants from the species Homo erectus are thought to have reached

 Southeast Asia via the Near East, and they may have penetrated southern

 Europe. A second wave of migration began about 800,000 years ago.

 As the early humans adapted to their new homes and to the various

 environmental & climatic conditions that they found, different sub-species

 and races developed, among them Java Man, Peking Man and, in Europe

 Homo heidelbergensis and the Neanderthal race. Meanwhile, in Africa, 

 a new type of human evolved - one that would eventually spread across

 the globe and supplant others. Homo sapiens sapiens, the human race,

 dates back to about 100,000 years ago and

 around 40,000 years ago the species

 reached central Europe and had arrived

 in Australia. The Americas were the last

 continent to be populated - by settlers

 crossing from Asia by way of the Bering

 land bridge. The very success of Homo

 sapiens sapiens in displacing all of its

 rivals is due to y[our] species' greater

 mental capacity and, in particular, its

 complex language skills. Human culture

 took a giant step forward in the latter part

 of the Old Stone Age, from about 40,000

 to 10,000 years ago. It was during this

 time when humans were beginning to

 shape the environment which they lived

 in and as they did so they began to feel

 the need to express themselves through

 art. Art seems to have been an exclusive

 preserve of y[our] species. The number of works they produced increased

 dramatically in the course of the last Ice Age as y[our] ancestors spread

 around the world. The rock drawings and engravings they created still

 have a very powerful impact today, as do the small human and animal

 figurines that the first sculptors carved out of mammoth ivory. The carved

 limestone figure gets its name from where it was found, near the village

 of Willendorf in Austria. It stands just 11cm (4.3in) tall.

 I suppose it was Jung's concept of the collective conscious, in combination

 with a lesson on the Inca's, in which the juxtaposition of Peru on the

 western seaboard of the Americas were discussed - which it has since

 transpired, were themselves, so arranged on Pangea itself - that got me

 hooked on the really big picture of the very evolution of Inca Culture,

 as consequence of the climatic conditions pertaining to the west of the

 Andean Mountain Range. A potentially desertified homeland for the Incas,

 which was forever subjected to the warm dry air from the Pacific, whilst the

 very wet air from the Atlantic, which deposited its water in the mountains

 and then flowed predominately back into the plains of North and Central

 South America and rivers such as the Amazon; until the Incas ingenuity of

 directing the mountain water through a major system of aqueducts, storage

 and terraces, was established. Or so I thought back then, in concert with the

 majority of the supposed experts on the subject, until it was realised many

 moons later that the Inca Empire was built on the achievement of others

 who went before them, namely the peoples of the Wari tribe - masters of

 landscape transformation by way of directing water from the mountains

 into the rich agricultural regions of their making - who had themselves

 been doing this for centuries before the Incas appeared on the scene.

  It is, however, now well understood, that you can find the remains of

 cultures which stretch back thousands of years, throughout this part of

 South America, and that these past societies had their own world views,

 belief systems and ways of living their lives; as well as an understanding of

 the complex inter-relationship between them, that is so importantsuch

 that no society suddenly appears independently on its own; but that some

 societies, such as that established by the Wari people, can be so successful

 that their influence spreads far and wide. One very important aspect of this

 being the societies concept of TIME. These peoples of South America, who

 could potentially have established themselves there as long ago as 40,000

 years, by way of a route restricted to the west of the Rockies and Andes, 

 most certainly thought differently than we do about past, present and future.

 This has significant implications for understanding the evolution and the

 development of all aspects of Inca/Wari history and not least how long it

 took to build their empires. 

 Our own western concept of time follows a 
linear path, with past

 affecting present, and present affecting future; in juxtaposition to

 that of the Inca/Wari peoples, who perceived past, present and future 

 as THE∞connessione of three parallel life lines of existence, which

 moment by momentthroughout the entirety of their livesfocused 

 on the absolute point of NOW, that transects at a pointall three of

 the parallel lifelines.   




Views: 151

Comment by Michael Grove on February 28, 2016 at 21:43

Praised as the finest account of the end of Incan empire since W. H. Prescott's History of the

Conquest of Peru, this monumental explanation of the sixteenth-century Spanish invasion

removes the Incas from the realm of legend and describes their battles against forces led by

conquistador Francisco Pizarro. Drawing upon rediscovered sources and a first-hand knowledge

of the Incan terrain, Hemming vividly describes post-conquest Peru and the Incan resistance to

fully integrating into Spanish society. With maps, line drawings, and twenty-four pages of

photography, The Conquest of the Incas is an intimately researched and evocative history of

one of the world's most fascinating civilisations that refutes many misconceptions about how

the Incas were defeated.

Comment by Michael Grove on March 3, 2016 at 14:26

This tiny pioneering fungus was among the first organisms populate dry land, sparking an explosion in plants and animals

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