describe the tetrahedron as the simplest structural system with insideness and outsideness, and it was his most important building block, the form on which the rest of synergetic geometry hinged. The tetrahedron, with its four faces and four vertexes, was the three-dimensional form that could contain the least volume. It was the simplest “system” containing a set of relationships. Regardless of the earlier references to the family of regular polyhedra and their significance in life’s architecture on a moving, spherical earth, humans had latched onto the cube as the main building block of mathematics. For Fuller, the 90 degree angles of the cube were a side effect or “precessional effect” of various processes in a universe of angles, curves and arcs. His cube was inscribed by the duotet, two interpenetrating tetrahedra whose eight outer points met cube’s eight vertices and gave it an inherent stability.
Four hundred years after Durer and Kepler, Buckminster Fuller continued a similar process of experimental observation of structure in three dimensions. Fuller’s approach to design was influenced by his Navy experience. During a long introduction to the design of ships on the sea, Fuller paid attention to designs which contained new angles and curves in order to navigate through a continually shifting, fluid medium. In his earliest writing, a 1928 document titled “Lightful Housing,” he introduced a “Theory of the Spheres.” In this paper he contended, “all matter in unforced state is spheroidal not cubistic, and these spheres are expanding for the life of their existence at a fixed rate.”15 A very different version of this essay appeared in Fuller’s self-published 1928 book titled “4-D Timelock.” For the rest of his life he unraveled this way of looking at the earth from a spherical perspective. Finally in 1975 and 1979 respectively, Fuller released Synergetics and Synergetics 2 presenting the complete system of dynamic geometry from which he derived the geodesic dome, his icosahedral map and his octet truss building system.
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R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER • First published in Learning Tomorrows: Commentaries on the Future of Education, ed. Peter H. Wagschal (New York, 1979) - The Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller. …
nd the conceptual geometry of the zero point, the vacuum of our space, and the Unified Field In Physics, equilibrium arises if the vector sum of all forces acting upon a particle or rigid body [IS] 'O' ZERO...
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